Skip to Top Navigation Skip to Content Skip to Footer
Students walking on campus of Husson University

Undergraduate Policies

Academic Integrity

Husson University strives to promote and preserve an academic environment that facilitates learning throughout students' undergraduate and graduate experience. Students demonstrate learning and faculty assess learning through a variety of means such as testing, papers, and research. In order to preserve a healthy academic environment, students must demonstrate their own efforts.

The learning environment is undermined when students do not act with integrity by presenting other's works as their own or by distorting academic records. Although the following is not an exclusive list, violations of academic integrity include:
  • Cheating - sharing, providing, obtaining or submitting information, whether verbally, electronically or by other means, with the intent of fraudulently improving course grades.
  • Plagiarism - presenting ideas as your own without proper attribution to the person who originally developed the idea or expression or the means or method of conveying it.
  • Fabrication - presenting information as fact that has not been verified or cannot be substantiated by reference to professional material or the scientific process.
  • Falsification - altering or causing documents or records, official or otherwise, to reflect a false representation regarding work, credentials, or accomplishments.
Upon entering the University, each student must sign a copy of the academic integrity policy. Each instructor is empowered to determine the appropriate sanction based on a violation of this policy, including failure in the course. If an instructor determines that a violation of academic integrity has transpired, the instructor will memorialize the finding in a report and meet with the student to discuss the findings and proposed sanctions. The student may appeal the findings to the Dean of the respective school for the course within 10 business days of the scheduled meeting with the instructor. Other academic sanctions may also be taken by the University authorities, including dismissal from the University.

Distance Education Verification of Student Identity

In order to sustain the integrity of distance education programs, the academic community must assure that students registered for those courses are the same as those who are participating in them. Students who participate in distance education courses will be required to submit a signed statement of Academic Integrity that specifically applies to the distance education environment. In addition, instructors and students will arrange for at least one synchronous meeting during the course at which the identity of the student can be confirmed visually or telephonically. The meetings between instructors and students will verify the student's identity as well as reinforce learning outcomes and augment personal connection between instructors and students.

Semester Hour Defined and Student Course Load

A credit hour is defined as the equivalent of a single 50-minute period of classroom or direct faculty instruction and a minimum of two hours of out-of-class student work each week during a semester of approximately fifteen weeks. An equivalent amount of work is expected for other activities such as laboratory work and internships. A full-time Husson undergraduate student normally enrolls for 15 credit hours of course work. Exceptions may include the following conditions: (1) a student on probation is required to carry a reduced load of 12 credit hours; or (2) a conditionally accepted student is required to carry a reduced load. Full-time attendance is defined as a course load of 12 or more semester hours.

Change of Academic Program

Students applying for a change of academic program must obtain the approval of the chairs of the departments involved. All program changes become effective at the beginning of the following semester. Students who change their program of study must submit required forms to the Registrar's Office prior to the beginning of their final term or semester.

A student who seeks a second or additional major for his or her baccalaureate degree must meet all General Education requirements for the original major and complete all degree requirements for both majors. A student seeking a second major should complete a Request for Second Major form and submit it to the Registrar's Office.

A student who seeks a second or additional bachelor's degree must complete a minimum of 30 additional semester hours at Husson beyond the requirements for the first degree and complete all requirements for both degrees. Students who would like to enroll in a second degree must submit Change of Major paperwork to the Registrar's Office indicating both degrees being pursued.

Course Change and Course Withdrawals

During the first week of classes in the semester, students are given the opportunity to adjust their course schedules by adding and dropping courses. Verbal notice to the instructor or failure to attend class is not sufficient notice. Written approval must be obtained from the faculty advisor. Dropping courses may delay graduation and adversely impact class status, athletic eligibility, immigration status and financial aid.

The policy with respect to withdrawing from a course is as follows:

1. A student who withdraws from a course after the Add/Drop period will generally not be registered or admitted to another course.

2. A student who withdraws from a course up to the midterm of classes will receive a grade of "WW."

3. If a student withdraws after the midterm, a grade of PW or FW will appear on the student's official transcript indicating:
  • PW (Withdraw Pass)--The student withdraws from the course having completed all work and assignments up to the time of the withdrawal and/or having participated in the course to the academic expectation of the professor.
  • FW (Withdraw Fail)--The student withdraws from the course not having completed the work and the assignments up to the time of withdrawal and/or had not participated in the course to the academic expectation of the professor.
The grade of PW or FW will be determined by the professor of the course and submitted to the Registrar at the time the student withdraws from the course, on an official withdrawal form.
The grade of PW, although included on the student's transcript, is not computed into the grade-point average or the cumulative average. The grade of FW is computed into the grade-point average and the cumulative average.
No course withdrawal can be initiated after the last day of classes as designated in the academic calendar in the semester or term in which the course is taken.


Students are expected to attend all scheduled class sessions for courses in which they are enrolled. The only recognized absences are those that are the consequence of family or personal emergencies or extended illness requiring confinement or hospitalization. Proof of the validity of a particular class absence may be required of a student by an instructor. The decision as to whether or not a student may make up class work, quizzes or examinations missed while absent is exclusively that of the course instructor.

Husson University policy requires that faculty keep attendance records. When students are absent from either more than 15% of the scheduled class meetings for a semester or more than the number of absences allowed per the syllabus for a specific course, faculty may award the grade of X and deny course credit for excessive absences. It is recommended that faculty inform students when they are in danger of losing credit due to excessive absences.

Attendance in online courses is demonstrated in a variety of ways such as by submitting  academic assignments, taking  exams, engaging in interactive tutorials or computer-assisted instruction, participating in online discussions about academic matters, or initiating contact with the faculty members to ask questions about the academic content of the course.

Students must log in at least once a week at a minimum but multiple logins are highly recommended to satisfy academic obligations. Any students who begins active participation but does not log in to their course(s) for 7 consecutive calendar days, or as outlined in the course syllabus, may be assigned a grade of "X" (Failure for excessive absences).


Synchronous Sessions Policy for Asynchronous Courses

All instruction in asynchronous courses and programs is delivered online with no required in-person activities.  Certain exceptions exist for practicum requirements for clinical programs such as may be found in the health care disciplines. Although the majority of online instructions will be asynchronous, some courses may involve synchronous interactivity-including real-time events, guest lectures, panel discussions, simulations, student group work, consultations, or meetings. Synchronous sessions will meet accessibility and Universal Design for Learning (UDL).

Online synchronous sessions are those for which students and instructors are engaged in simultaneous electronic communication with each other. When a synchronous session is scheduled, faculty must record the session or provide a suitable alternative for students whose schedules prevent them from participating at that time. Any recording should be made available for at least two weeks after the session for any student who is not able to attend. Instructors are required to provide adequate notice of all synchronous sessions and to indicate to the means by which information will be available for those unable to participate.


Leave of Absence from the Campus

A written leave of absence request submitted to the Dean of the College allows the student to bypass the more lengthy college admissions process and return to school.

Directed Course Study

In a Directed Study, an individual student and a faculty member cover the content of a course in the Husson University curriculum but do not meet in a regular class section with other students. Normally, a directed study is only approved for those students with fifteen or fewer credit hours remaining in their program of study. Final evaluation of a student includes an assessment of learning outcomes by the faculty member.

Only six (6) semester hours of directed study may be applied to the requirements for a bachelor's degree. Only three (3) semester hours of directed study may be applied to the requirements for an associate's degree.

Independent Study

In an Independent Study, an individual student and faculty member study subject matter not covered by an established Husson University course. Independent Study courses may be available to students who meet the following criteria:
  • Junior or senior status
  • An overall average of 3.0 or
  • A 3.0 average in the previous semester
A plan of study is developed by the faculty member and submitted to the department chair or dean for approval.

Transfer Credit Policy

A student at Husson who is a degree candidate and has not transferred any credit hours from another college or university may transfer twelve (12) credits to be applied toward a bachelor’s degree program or six (6) credits to apply toward an associate's degree program. However, unless an active-duty service-member, students are not permitted to transfer in any part of the last year’s work in their program [usually thirty (30) semester hours]. A transfer student who becomes a Husson degree candidate cannot transfer in additional credit beyond what was accepted in transfer at the time of admission to Husson University. A minimum grade of C must be earned for the course to be eligible for transfer. Students should consult specific program information and/or department heads to determine whether additional requirements or limitations apply. In addition, students should seek permission to transfer credits from another institution prior to registering for their courses. Such permission may not be granted if the course under consideration is similar to one being offered by the University during that same term. Course credits transferred in to Husson appear on the transcript as a "T". Grades earned at other institutions as course repeats do not replace those earned at Husson.

Special Schedule Options

Husson University offers a January and May term and from time to time may offer quarter courses and other special formats in which classes meet on a more intensive schedule than in semester length courses.

Summer Sessions

Summer sessions are offered to allow students early entry into a college program, to accelerate their graduation date, or to make up academic deficiencies.

Grading System

The system of evaluating a student's achievement at Husson is by letter grade, with grade-point values based upon an earned three-hour credit unit as follows:

Letter Grade (Grade-Point Average (Quality Points) Numeric Grade
A 4.0 12.0 95-100
A- 3.7 11.1 90-94
B+ 3.3 9.9 87-89
B 3.0 9.0 83-86
B- 2.7 8.1 80-82
C+ 2.3 6.9 77-79
C 2.0 6.0 73-76
C- 1.7 5.1 70-72
D+ 1.3 3.9 67-69
D 1.0 3.0 63-66
D- 0.7 2.1 60-62
F 0.0 0.0 Below 60

+P C level work or higher. Passed
+++NG No Grade Submitted (temporary grade)
*WW Withdrawal up to Midterm
+PW Withdrew Passing
FW Withdrew Failing
+E Exited without withdrawing
X Credit Denied Because of Excessive Absences
+WA Administrative Withdrawal
+++l Incomplete (temporary grade)
++AU Audit, no credit earned
+L Student enrolled but never attended course, no withdrawal on file.
+ Grade does not affect GPA
++ Audit Courses: Students who wish to audit a course (enroll for noncredit) must follow the usual registration procedure.
+++ A temporary grade (I & NG), if not converted to a final grade, becomes an F at the mid point of the following term or semester.

The Registrar's Office does not report grades upon a verbal request to do so. Only written requests by authorized personnel are acknowledged.

Student Appeal of a Course Grade

If a student believes he or she has received an improper grade for a course, he or she must present the case to the instructor within one week from the beginning of the next regular semester (e.g. fall, spring). If the matter is not resolved within two weeks of discussion with the instructor, the student may appeal the matter. The appeal must be in writing with supportive evidence and rationale to the Dean of the School or College offering the course.  It must be made within 30 days from the beginning of the semester in which the appeal is initiated through conversations with the instructor. The Dean will consider only issues of procedure and fair treatment and will not review the academic judgment used in determining a grade. The Dean’s decision on matters pertaining to grade appeals is final. Certain procedural variations may exist depending upon the student’s course of study and/or the availability of the faculty member. The Dean will make a determination within 60 days of receiving the written appeal. If the student needs assistance with the appeal process and/or the written appeal, only the assistance provided by the student’s Academic Advisor as officially recorded through the Office of the Registrar will be recognized by the Dean. The Academic Advisor is not permitted to advocate on the student’s behalf. 


The option to take a course on a pass/fail basis may not be available in all courses. When it is available, the students must declare choice of the option before the end of the add/drop period.

Incomplete Grades

In exceptional circumstances students may be given an "I" (Incomplete) grade. Criteria for granting Incompletes include illness or accident, death or critical illness in the family, emotional disturbance requiring special guidance, and similar difficulties. Incompletes must be concluded and earned grades recorded by midpoint of the semester following the assignment of the incomplete grades.

An Incomplete automatically becomes an "F" if the Registrar's Office is not notified by the instructor that another grade has been awarded.

Academic Warning, Probation and Dismissal

Undergraduate degree and Special students who do not achieve the minimum cumulative grade-point average listed below receive warnings or are placed on Probation** as indicated:

On the Completion of Academic Probation Academic Warning

Academic Probation Academic Warning For students who have completed
0 - 1.49 GPA 1.50 - 1.99 GPA 0 - 23 credit hours
0 - 1.69 GPA 1.70 - 1.99 GPA 24 - 53 credit hours
0 - 1.79 GPA 1.80 - 1.99 GPA 54 - 83 credit hours
0 - 1.89 GPA 1.90 - 1.99 GPA 84+ credit hours

The University will dismiss students whose GPA falls within the standards of academic probation for two consecutive semesters or terms. Accordingly, every effort should be made to remove grade deficiencies during the subsequent semester or term. 
**Students who earn a 0.00 term grade-point average will automatically be placed on Academic Probation.   
  • Warning: Academic Warning alerts students that their achievement is below the standard required for normal progress toward graduation. As a result, reduction in student credit-hour course loads may be imposed as well as restrictions on extracurricular activities. Grade deficiencies should be removed during the subsequent semester or during summer terms when possible.
Students with a 0.00 term grade-point average will be placed on academic probation regardless of number of credits earned and cumulative grade-point average. Failure to earn a term average of at least 2.0 in the subsequent semester will result in academic dismissal.
  • Probation: Academic Probation signifies that students are in serious academic jeopardy. Students on probation must remove grade deficiencies during the subsequent semester or during summer sessions. Failure to do so may result in academic dismissal from the University. Students on Probation are required to carry a reduced class load and are restricted on extracurricular activities. A student on probation is required to carry a reduced load of 12 credit hours.
  • Dismissal: Students dismissed for academic reasons may not register for or attend classes in the subsequent semester. For the purposes of this section, the semester is defined as the regularly scheduled fall and spring periods of instruction of the Day Program, but does not include summer sessions. When a full-time day student is dismissed for academic reasons, the student will not be allowed to register for Husson Extended Learning courses while the dismissal is in force.
A student who seeks a reconsideration of dismissal may appeal the decision on the grounds of extenuating circumstances and by demonstrating a reasonable prospect for academic success in the upcoming semester. The appeal should be initiated in writing and submitted to the Dean of the respective School. After reviewing the matter, which may include a meeting with the student, the Dean will provide a recommendation to the Deans' Council for affirmation or rejection. Further appeal of the Deans' Council decision shall be made to the Chief Academic Officer or his or her designee whose decision shall be final. When the consideration of an appeal requires immediate attention and the Dean of the School is not readily available, the Chief Academic Officer may exercise prerogative in accepting a direct appeal and rendering a final decision.

A student may be dismissed from an academic program but remain in acceptable standing in the University. Students dismissed from a degree program will be assigned to special or undeclared status until they complete a change of major form.

Repeating a Course

Students may elect to repeat courses in which they have received a grade of "C" or below, but may not attempt a course more than three times. The newly earned grade will replace the original grade in the calculation of a student's cumulative grade-point average, regardless of whether the new grade earned is higher or lower than the previous grade. The former grade is retained as originally recorded in the student's transcript. Students cannot repeat a course that has been removed from the curriculum unless another course has been designated as an approved alternative for the deleted course. When a student receives a failing grade (X, F, or FW) in a topics course (usually designated by a course number X99) and seeks to repeat the course, the Dean of the School in which the course was offered may authorize a comparable course to be taken as a substitute. The grade in the designated substitute course will replace the failing grade in calculating the cumulative grade-point average Students are required to repeat Rhetoric and Composition courses (EH 123 and EH 124), and, if applicable, The Writing Workshop (EH 91) if they earn a grade of "C-" or lower. Students in these courses will present a portfolio of their work at the end of the semester for evaluation, to be graded "Pass" or "No Pass. A student must receive a "Pass" to receive a grade of "C" or better. Students must complete the Approaches to Literature course (EH 200) with a grade of "C" or better in order to meet prerequisite requirements for any upper-level English Literature courses.

A student required to repeat a course will be charged full tuition for the course.

Students should also refer to policies of their particular discipline for further information on repeating a course.

Academic Forgiveness

A Husson student who withdraws from one baccalaureate program and enters another may petition the Chief Academic Officer to obtain relief from low grades. The Chief Academic Officer will consult with the Dean who has jurisdiction over the student's new program of study. If the petition is granted, the Dean will identify courses which are unrelated to the new major and to the University's general education requirements and in which the student earned grades of F, X, or FW. The grades from these courses will be withdrawn from the calculation of the GPA in the student's new program of study.

Relief under this policy is an option open to students only once. Should the student later seek re-admission to her or his original degree program, the grades withdrawn from the GPA calculation under this policy will be restored to reflect the student's performance in that program.

A reentry student who previously received grades of F, X, or FW at Husson University, may petition the Provost for Academic Forgiveness if they meet the following requirements:

  • At least five years have lapsed since the last semester of attendance at Husson University.
  • The student must be enrolled in an undergraduate degree program leading to an Associate or Baccalaureate degree.
  • Prior to petitioning for academic forgiveness the student must have earned a minimum of 12 credits and maintained a GPA of 2.5 or higher with no grade lower than a "C".

The ability to petition for forgiveness of these grades is available even if the student pursues the same or similar degree. All course grades forgiven will remain on the student's transcript, but will not be calculated into the student's GPA. Academic Forgiveness for reentering students is available only once and applies solely to Undergraduate courses.

Tuition Refund Policy

Students are enrolled for the entire semester, not for a period of attendance. Paying fees in installments does not result in a fractional contract. A student who withdraws from school prior to the completion of his/her program of study, either during a semester or between semesters, must file an official form of withdrawal with the Registrar’s Office.

Tuition refund credits are computed from the official date of withdrawal. Nonattendance of classes does not constitute an official withdrawal. Full tuition credits will be given for individual course withdrawals during the standard add/drop period each term. For individual course withdrawals after the standard add/drop period, tuition and fees will not be adjusted.

Students who are academically or administratively dismissed will receive a refund in accordance with the refund policy below.

Financial aid will be proportionately charged back in accordance with government regulations.

For program withdrawals during the regular academic year or for terms that are 15 or 12 weeks in length, refund credits will be prorated on the balance of tuition and other charges, after deducting the tuition deposit and other nonrefundable fees, using the following schedule:

Refund Credit Schedule
15-Week Term
 During the First Week  100%
During the Second Week 85%
During the Third Week 70%
During the Fourth Week 55%
During the Fifth Week 40%
During the Sixth Week 25%
After the Sixth Week 0%

 Summer Session withdrawals will be prorated using the following schedule:

Withdrawal Date Refund Percentage
Withdrawal on or before the number of days equal to the number of weeks a class is scheduled 100%
For example, for a six-week course, a refund will be granted through the sixth day.
After the number of days equal to the number of weeks a classs is scheduled. 0%

Residence Refund Policy

Students who withdraw from the University or are academically or administratively dismissed, must complete and sign a Residence Withdrawal form and turn in his or her room key and student ID card to the Director of Residential Life. A refund credit will be prorated on the residence charges in accordance with the same schedule as is used for tuition refunds (see Tuition Refund Policy above).

Class Identification

A student is usually identified as a first-year student, sophomore, junior or senior. Such a classification is applicable to the four years of regular college attendance. However, an increase in hours earned during one or more semesters or enrollment in summer sessions may result in an accelerated program. Thus, it is more accurate to designate class standing in accordance with credit hours earned plus credits accepted in transfer according to the following schedule:
  • 0-23 Freshman
  • 24-53 Sophomore
  • 54-83 Junior
  • 84 Senior
The schedule above has no necessary relationship to the cumulative hours and required grade-point average necessary for continuing enrollment.

Graduation Requirements

Course requirements for Bachelor of Science and Associate in Science degrees are listed in the sections of this catalog devoted to each School. When the degree candidate successfully completes the curriculum for a selected program of study, he or she is recommended for a degree. Students may complete more than one concentration of study within a degree area.

Candidates for a Bachelor of Science degree are required to complete a minimum of 120 semester credit hours maintaining a minimum 2.0 overall cumulative grade-point average (may be higher in select programs) and 2.0 in the professional requirements of the concentration, with at least 15 credit hours in their concentration completed at Husson University. Some programs extend into the fifth year and require substantially more than 120 semester hours to complete. Some programs may have more rigorous grade-point average requirements.

A student who seeks a second or additional bachelor's degree must complete a minimum of 30 additional semester hours at Husson beyond the requirements for the first degree and complete all requirements in the second degree area.

Candidates for an Associate in Science degree are required to complete a minimum of 60 semester credit hours maintaining a 2.0 or better cumulative grade-point average, and a 2.0 in the professional requirements of the concentration, with at least 15 credit hours in their concentration completed at Husson University.

A degree candidate is required to spend at least one academic year (or its equivalent) in residence as an enrolled student. Students must take their final thirty (30) credit hours at Husson University.

Students can request their transcript by filling out a paper request form, available in the Registrar's Office, or electronically through a secure website. Transcript fees are as follows:

Paper Requests

• Fee per transcript requested (up to 5): No Charge
• Additional copies: $3.00
• Same-day, walk-in service: Additional $5.00

Electronic Requests

• Fee per transcript requested: $3.00
• Delivery Method
     • Electronic: No additional charge
     • Mail: Additional $2.00 per transcript requested
     • Overnight Delivery (w/in U.S.): Additional $25.00 per transcript requested

No transcript is issued until the student's financial account has been paid in full.

Degrees are conferred at Spring Commencement exercises held in May. Students are encouraged to be present at Spring Commencement. Students should expect to receive their diploma 4-6 weeks after completion.

No diploma is issued until the student's financial account has been paid in full. For further information on graduation requirements for graduate degrees, please review the respective program.


(1) A student carrying a full course of 12 semester hours is placed on the President's List when a grade-point average of 3.8 or better is maintained for the semester and all courses attempted in the semester are completed at the end of the semester. (2) A student carrying a full course of 12 semester hours is placed on the Dean's List when a grade- point average of 3.6-3.79 is maintained for the semester and all courses attempted in the semester are completed at the end of the semester. (3) A student carrying a full course of 12 semester hours is placed on the Honor List when a grade-point average of 3.4-3.59 is maintained for the semester and all courses attempted in the semester are completed at the end of the semester.

Husson makes several awards annually in recognition of the accomplishments of members of the graduating class. Gold honor cords are worn by all associates and baccalaureate-level graduates who participate in commencement ceremonies and have achieved a cumulative grade-point average of 3.4 or better. Special recognition is also given to outstanding men and women of the graduating class in both the Bachelor of Science and Associate in Science degrees. These honors are determined by cumulative grade-point averages computed at the end of the Fall semester.

Graduation honors are as follows:
  • Summa cum laude 3.8-4.00 GPA
  • Magna cum laude 3.6-3.79 GPA
  • Cum laude 3.4-3.59 GPA


To be eligible for the award of Valedictorian or Salutatorian a student must complete a minimum of 90 credit hours at Husson; take a minimum of 12 credit hours per semester for at least six semesters, and complete degree requirements within five years of matriculation. Students matriculating in programs in which the bachelor's degree is normally awarded at the end of five years must complete degree requirements within six years to qualify for valedictorian or salutatorian.

The valedictorian will be the graduating senior with the highest grade-point average. The salutatorian will be the graduating senior with the second highest grade-point average. The winner of the Outstanding Academic Achievement Award will be the graduating senior with the highest grade-point average who does not meet the eligibility requirements for valedictorian or salutatorian.

Valedictorian, salutatorian, and outstanding academic achievement awards are based on grades on record as of the end of the previous Fall semester. They are awarded at each May Commencement exercise.

Confidentiality of Student Records

All students and alumni are authorized access, upon presentation of written requests, to records of their attendance, performance, and scholastic achievement maintained by the University. In accordance with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 as amended, regulations setting forth the procedures by which access may be obtained, the person or persons responsible for custody of records and the persons authorized to have access to student records have been published. These regulations are available to interested persons upon request. Records are maintained in accordance with federal and state regulations. In general, after seven years beyond termination or graduation, only transcripts of Husson courses are retained in the Registrar's Office.

Contract for Degree

Normally, the final thirty credit hours of a student's program of study must be completed at Husson University. Under certain circumstances, a Contract for Degree option will be available for active duty military personnel and other students who are forced to leave the region before completing their studies because of a work assignment.

The student must be able to complete a minimum of thirty of the last sixty credit hours at Husson, fifteen of which must be in the major. Some major courses may not be acceptable as transfer courses. To qualify for the Contract for Degree option, a student must be in good academic standing.

The Dean responsible for the student's major area must give permission to develop a Contract for Degree. The Contract is to be developed with the academic advisor and the Chair of the major program, and must stipulate the specific courses to be completed at another institution.

The Contract process must be initiated while the student is in residence at Husson. The specific courses to be taken at another institution should be approved by the Chair of the major before the student registers. The student must file a written progress report annually with the Chair of the major area, and all work on the degree should be completed within five years of the time the Contract is written.


It is the responsibility of the student to be familiar with and abide by all academic regulations, including requirements for completing the major and degree, prerequisites to be met for enrolling in certain courses, restrictions on enrollment in certain courses, and withdrawal from and repeating of courses. Failure to comply with all regulations could adversely affect the student's status and graduation.